Temperatures in the corona are upwards of 2 million degrees Fahrenheit, while just 1,000 miles below, the underlying surface simmers at a balmy 10,000 F. How the Sun manages this feat remains one of the greatest unanswered questions in astrophysics; scientists call it the coronal heating problem.

protons are photons

Photons induced by mantle heating transform into electron positron pairs at the surface of the solar core where electrons transform into field lines resulting in residual positrons which merge in trios, three trios are trapped by four transiting electrons and transform into protons which compose the solar wind and corona of plasma ions and mantle of liquid hydrogen.

The mantle is cooled from below by transformation of photons into protons at the surface of the core and heated by the corona floating above the mantle, and heated by exposure to the solar electic current in coronal holes and sunspots, which powers the endothermic change of state at the surface of the mantle from liquid hydrogen to ionized plasma gas composing the corona and solar wind.

The Solid Solar Surface Model is based upon observations from the YOHKOH, SOHO and TRACE satellite programs, from spectral analysis data compiled by the SERTS program and from other solar observation programs from around the world.

ferrite surface of the sun

This “running Difference” image of the sun’s surface was captured by SOHO. This NASA image was taken on May 27th 2005 at 19:13 using the 195A filter that is sensitive to iron ion emissions.


The ionized rotating cores of stars and planets transform the rotational momentum of moving charges into dipole moments, a vector force which increases the momentum of orbiting ions in the direction of core rotation and powers high velocity ring currents around the equatorial planes of stars and planets.

The solar core is a rotating array of equal radius, ionized spheres transforming the momentum of core rotation into dipole moments which is captured by array fields powering rotation of the solar wind around the equatorial plane, in the direction of core rotation.

Protons are transformed from photons at the surface of array cores facing the equatorial plane and the alignment of array cores and fields is tipped with respect to the solar rotation axis, which directs the solar wind above and below the equatorial plane as the sun rotates.

Saturn’s core is a rotating array of equal radius ionized spheres, embedded in fields aligned parallel to Saturn’s rotation axis which capture dipole moments induced by core rotation which power high velocity winds of atmospheric ions in the direction of core rotation parallel to the equatorial plane.

The equatorial ring currents of atmospheric ions transform the orbital momentum of moving charges into dipole moments which induce their sum as a dipole field along Saturn’s rotation axis with the opposite polarity pole to ring current ions along the rotation axis away from the clockwise rotating face which powers the movement of Saturn’s mantle towards the hexagon pole.