before oceans


The spread rates of the deepwater oceans suggest the Pacific Ocean began formation at the beginning of the Mesozoic Era 250 million years ago when planetary surface area was equal to the surface area of the continental landmasses.(148.9 mill sq km) and the planet Mars (144.8 mill sq km) and planetary mass was 10% of Earth’s present mass.

The late Paleozoic icehouse, also known as the Late Paleozoic Ice Age and formerly known as the Karoo ice age, was an ice age that began in the Late Devonian and ended in the Late Permian occurring from 360 to 255 million years ago and large land-based ice-sheets were then present on Earth’s surface.[4]

The Permian extinction at the beginning of the Mesozoic era suggests an impact may have shattered the lithosphere into plates which became the Pacific ocean seabed. The climate during the Late Permian suggests before the extinction Earth was farther from the sun than Earth’s present orbit. The warmer climate after the Permian extinction suggests the extinction may have been caused by an impact which knocked Earth into an orbit closer to the sun.

The temperatures, both on land and in the ocean, were much higher than during the Permian, and climates were more tropical in nature. Despite this, the seas were lower, and overall the Mesozoic Era was dryer than the Paleozoic Era. There were more deserts and less marshland.

The permian period was characterized by shallow continental oceans with diverse aquatic lifeforms. which we know from the fossil record. The dryer conditions suggest the continental oceans drained into the forming Pacific ocean seabed.

Earth and Mars have similar axial tilts and rotation periods and b
Before the extinction Earth and Mars were similar in size and Earth may have been farther from the sun, suggesting Earth and Mars could have been in geosynchronous orbits as they orbited the sun near the present solar orbit of Mars.

A map of the titanium abundances on the Moon’s surface, obtained from NASA’s Clementine spacecraft; the red parts indicate extremely high concentrations compared to terrestrial rocks.

We managed to mimic the high-Ti basalts in the process in the lab using high-temperature experiments clearly demonstrating how the melt-solid reaction is integral in understanding the formation of these unique magmas.

Tungston deposits, on the near side of the moon, now in geosyncronous orbit around Earth. suggest the near side was heated by atmospheric friction before the impact and knocked Earth out of geosyncronous orbits with Mars, shattering the lithosphere, and rebounded into the present day lunar orbit.

The Atlantic Ocean began formation 65 million years ago, when a meteor impact caused the extinction event which ended the Mesozoic era, punctured the lithosphere creating the Gulf of Mexico, and stress cracks through the lithosphere which spread apart north and south from the impact site, relieving internal pressure and separating the Americas from Eurasia.

Earth is held in orbit by solar gravity, which balances Earth’s orbital angular momentum, the product of Earth’s mass, orbital radius and orbital velocity. Planetary mass was 10% of Earth’s present mass at the beginning of the Mesozoic Era, This has resulted in a tenfold increase in Earth’s orbital momentum, which has increased the radius of Earth’s solar orbit to its present value over the last 250 million years. The first glaciation since the beginning of the Mesozoic Era suggests Earth is moving farther from the sun.

At least five major ice ages have occurred throughout Earth’s history: the earliest was over 2 billion years ago, and the most recent one began approximately 3 million years ago and continues today (yes, we live in an ice age!). Currently, we are in a warm interglacial that began about 11,000 years ago.

T-Rex and a large male elephant are about the same mass, but with very different architectures. Elephants use four column like legs, and feet with maximum surface area touching the ground, to support the same mass as T-Rex with two legs and a fraction of the surface area of their feet spreading their weight.

At the beginning of the Mesozoic era, when Earth’s mass was 10% and gravity was 40% of present day, T-Rex would have been the same mass but less than half the weight.

In humans and bovids, cortical bone has been evaluated to withstand maximum stress. Hence, within the context of comparable loading regimes, the mechanical state of each sauropod model examined suggests that all skeletal pedal postures would most likely have resulted in mechanical failure (e.g., stress fractures).

This state would have been intensified when subjected to repetitive heavy loadings, as would be expected during normal locomotion, ultimately resulting in fatigue fracture in all digits. Being unable to support or move properly, the high probability of mechanical failure would have had a substantial impact on the animal’s survival.

The huge Quetzalcoatlus northropi lived 70 million years ago, stood as tall as a giraffe on the ground, more than five meters tall and weighed 250 kilograms. This is the maximum weight limit for a flying animal, and only a few other azhdarchids come close.

Pelagornis sandersi – a newly discovered extinct species of bird that lived in what is now North America about 28 million years ago – 48 pounds (21.8 kilograms) it is the largest flying bird ever found, says Dr Daniel Ksepka, a paleontologist with Bruce Museum in Greenwich, Connecticut.

The Kori bustard is the heaviest living animal that can fly. The males normally weigh between 10 and 16 kilograms, but some can reach 21 kg. For comparison, the wandering albatross has a larger wingspan, but only the biggest reach even 16 kg.

The Bustard is a ground dwelling bird, hence the name Bustard, which means to walk. Because of their very heavy nature and build, Kori’s rarely fly and only when necessary. Because of their infrequency with flying, they have been categorized under the flightless bird category among the Ostrich and emu.