angular


ANGULAR MOMENTUM

Orbital angular momentum is the product of the orbital radius, the orbital velocity and the mass of the orbiting body, a vector force pointing away from the center of mass of the orbited body which balances the force of gravity, a vector force pointing towards the center of mass of the orbited body.

Increasing the mass or velocity of an orbiting body has a multiplier effect on the orbital momentum, but no effect on gravity, which depends on the mass of the orbited body, therefore increasing the mass or velocity of an orbiting body increases the momentum and orbital radius, and decreases gravity on the orbiting body as the orbital radius increases.

The high velocity ring current of heavy ions around Io’s orbital path, is blocked by Io’s mass, reducing velocity and momentum of ring current ions which induces an opposing vector force in the direction of Io’s orbit which increases Io’s velocity and orbital momentum.

The magnetosphere of Jupiter sweeps up gases and dust from Io’s thin atmosphere at a rate of 1 tonne per second. This material is mostly ionized and atomic sulfur, oxygen and chlorine; atomic sodium and potassium; molecular sulfur dioxide and sulfur; and sodium chloride dust.

Io orbits Jupiter with a velocity of 17 km/sec. The Io plasma torus rotates with a velocity of about 74 km/sec. Since Io is embedded in the Io plasma torus, the torus plasma flows past Io with a relative velocity of 57 km/sec.

Io’s volcanism has led to the formation of hundreds of volcanic centers and extensive lava formations, making it the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Lava flows on Io, tens or hundreds of kilometers long, have primarily basaltic composition, similar to lavas seen on Earth at shield volcanoes such as Kilauea in Hawaii.

Io captures electrons from the ion electric ring current around Io’s orbital path which electrifies Io’s surface and induces a voltage potential between Io’s surface and core where electrons are transformed into field lines which propogate and capture electrons around Io’s orbital path.

The voltage potential between Io’s surface and core powers core electric currents and photons induced by mantle heating transform into electron positron pairs at the core surface where electrons transform into field lines resulting in residual positrons which merge in trios, are trapped by transiting electrons and transform into protons.

Photons transform in exothermic reactions with core current electrons into mantle elements which increases Io’s mass and surface area from volcanoes ejecting five tons/second of heavy ions which increases the mass and orbital momentum of the high velocity ring current around Io’s orbital path.

Scientists thought they knew the rate at which the giant moon Titan is moving away from Saturn, but they recently made a surprising discovery: Using data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, they found Titan drifting a hundred times faster than previously understood — about 4 inches/year.

The increase in mass from transformation of electrons and positrons into atoms by Io, Ganymede and Europa increases their lunar mass and orbital momentum which increases their orbital radius.

The three Galilean satellites are involved in orbital resonance, in which the orbital periods of Ganymede, Europa and Io are in a near 1:2:4 ratio and the mutual conjunctions of the Io–Europa pair and of the Europa–Ganymede pair precess around Jupiter at precisely the same rate.

Io is the most active geological body in the solar system, increasing Io’s mass, and the high velocity ring current of heavy ions increases Io’s orbital velocity, which has a multiplier effect increasing Io’s orbital momentum and orbital radius.

…one model suggests this resonance was progressively achieved after Io moved outward into a near 2:1 resonance with Europa, and then the Io–Europa pair moved outward until Ganymede was captured into its own near 2:1 resonance with Europa.

The six planets of HD110067 form successive pairs of 3:2, 3:2, 3:2, 4:3, and 4:3 resonances, resulting in the closest planet completing six orbits while the outer-most planet does one.

WEBB MAPS WEATHER ON HOT JUPITER: WASP-43b is cloudy on the nightside and clear on the dayside, with equatorial winds howling around the planet at 8,050 km per hour (5,000 mph) from a day side that is hot enough to melt iron to the night side that sees temperatures plunge to a comparatively cool 500 degrees C.

WASP-43b lies so close to its host star, the orange dwarf star WASP-43, that it completes an orbit in just 19.5 hours. It is also gravitationally locked so that it keeps one hemisphere facing the star. Strong eastward winds transport heat around from the dayside.

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