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Before creation of the deepwater oceans the planetary surface area was equal to the surface area of the continental landmasses. 250 million years ago an impact caused the PT extinction and shattered the lithosphere into multiple fractures, which have been spreading apart 17cm/year, since the beginning of the Mesozoic era, separating Asia from the Americas, and creating the Pacific ocean now covering 30% percent of the planetary surface.

At the end of the Mesozoic era an asteroid impacted the lithosphere at the Chicxulub crater in the Yucatán Peninsula, causing the K–Pg extinction event and creating stress cracks, which spread north and south, separating the Americas from Eurasia, which have been spreading apart 2.5 cm/year for 65 million years, creating the Atlantic Ocean now covering 20% of the planetary surface.

Electrified weather systems charge land surfaces and the oceans inducing a voltage potential between the planetary surface and core where electrons transform into field lines powering core electric currents which transform in exothermic reactions with protons transformed from photons induced by mantle heating into mantle elements.

Transformation of photons into protons cools the core, provides a heat sink for mantle heating, and transformation of protons and electrons into mantle elements increases mantle mass and displacement as water and gas saturated magma plumes upwell under the ocean basins, increasing planetary surface area as magma upwells and forms new oceanic lithosphere between the spreading oceanic plates.

The water and gas fraction of upwelling magma is discharged from hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean trenches, with elements and minerals fertilizing and filling the oceans as the seabed expands. Electrified weather systems charge the oceans and the electrolyte discharge conducts current from the oceans powered by the voltage potential across the oceanic lithosphere.

The electrical resistance of currents through the electrolyte discharge from hydrothermal vents heats the discharge, which transforms the voltage potential into photons. The increase in geomagnetic storms during the solar maximum increases ocean electrification which increases voltage potential across the lithosphere and resistive heating of the discharge from hydrothermal vents.

el nino & solar flares

The 22-year cycle begins when oppositely charged magnetic bands that wrap the Sun appear near the star’s polar latitudes. The cycle ends when the bands meet in the middle, mutually annihilating one another in what the research team calls a terminator event. These terminators provide precise guideposts for the end of one cycle and the beginning of the next.

The researchers imposed these terminator events over sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific stretching back to 1960. They found that the five terminator events that occurred between that time and 2010-11 all coincided with a flip from an El Nino (when sea surface temperatures are warmer than average) to a La Nina (when the sea surface temperatures are cooler than average). The end of the most recent solar cycle is also coinciding with the beginning of a La Nina event.