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High energy photons induced by exothermic mantle reactions transform into electron positron pairs at the planetary core surface where electrons transform into planetary field lines resulting in residual positrons which merge in trios and transform with transiting electrons into protons.

The planetary field captures electrons from the solar wind on field lines grounded in the atmosphere inside the auroral ovals and electrified weather systems charge the planetary surface inducing a voltage potential and core electric currents between the planetary surface and core where electrons transform into planetary field lines.

Photon transformation cools the planetary core and provides a heat sink for mantle heating. Protons transformed from photons transform with core current electrons into mantle elements, in exothermic nuclear reactions up to iron on the periodic table. Carbon and oxygen transform with protons and electrons into methane and water molecules, which saturate magma plumes growing upward from the core.

Transformation of protons and electrons into mantle mass increases planetary mass, angular momentum and surface area, and decreases surface curvature as the surface area increases, in the deep water oceans where magma upwells forming new oceanic lithosphere between the spreading continental plates.

The atmosphere is composed of the water and methane rich gas fraction of upwelling magma plumes released from volcanoes and volcanic vents. The oceans are filled by the water methane and gas fraction released from hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean trenches with dissolved elements and heating filling and fertilizing the expanding ocean basins.

Electrified weather systems charge the oceans inducing a voltage potential across the oceanic lithosphere powering core electric currents through the electrolyte discharge from hydrothermal vents and electrical resistance transforms the voltage potential into photons and heating the discharge.

During the solar maximum frequent geomagnetic storms and electrified weather systems charge the oceans and increase the voltage potential across the oceanic lithosphere increasing the kinetic energy of the current and resistive heating of the electrolyte discharge from hydrothermal vents which raises water temperatures in the South Pacific during the solar maximum and causing El Ninos at the lagging ends.

el nino & solar flares


In the distant past Earth and Mars had similar mass and surface area and in geosynchronous orbits with 24 hour orbital periods and similar axil tilts. In a cataclysmic event Mars was stripped of its planetary field and the planets were knocked out of their geosynchronous orbits, towards their present orbital paths around the sun, but preserving axial tilt and rotation period.

Before the event both planets were embedded in fields which captured electrons from the solar wind and transformed photons into protons at their cores increasing mantle mass and surface area of their lithospheres covering their surface in unbroken rocky shells stretched flat by internal pressure and punctuated by volcanoes which relieved internal pressure from mantle expansion.

The surface area of the continental land masses (148,647,000 sq.km.) is slightly more than the surface area of mars (144,798,500 sq. km.). Earth rotates every 24 hours with an axial tilt of about 23.5 deg. Mars has an axial tilt of 25 deg. and rotates every 24.6 hours.

The inner core rotates in the same direction as the Earth and slightly faster, completing its once-a-day rotation about two-thirds of a second faster than the entire Earth. Over the past 100 years that extra speed has gained the core a quarter-turn on the planet as a whole


A day on mars is thirty six minutes longer than a day on earth and we postulate earth’s rotation speed has increased, reducing the day length since separation from mars, due to the faster rotation of earth’s outer core which has increased the angular momentum of planetary rotation as the planet has grown to its present size.

After the event that knocked mars and earth in separate orbits, mars stopped capturing electrons from the solar wind and transforming photons into protons while earth continued to transform protons and electrons into water, methane and gas saturated magma which increased mantle mass, displacement and internal pressure which powered volcanic eruptions.

Volcanoes and hydrothermal vents fertilized land surfaces and the oceans nurturing the evolution of diverse lifeforms in a moist carbon rich environment where lifeforms grew to prodigious sizes in reduced gravity.


A multinational group of paleontologists has described a new titanosaurian dinosaur, named Dreadnoughtus schrani, from Upper Cretaceous sediments in southern Patagonia, Argentina. It is the most complete giant titanosaur yet discovered, and provides new insight into the morphology and evolutionary history of these supermassive dinosaurs.


We postulate about sixty five million years ago a meteor shattered the lithosphere into the continental plates, after puncturing the lithosphere at the present location of the Gulf of Mexico,


The meteor impact which caused extinction of the dinosaurs sixty five million years ago shattered the lithosphere into the continental plates when the planet had the same surface area and surface curvature as mars.

The impact broke through the lithosphere at the present location of the Gulf of Mexico and high velocity stress fractures, powered by the release of internal pressure of the growing mantle behind the leading edges, which divided the Americas from Europe and Africa, crossed the poles and ended in multiple fractures across future sea-beds of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Since the lithosphere was shattered into the continental plates the Grand Canyon was formed as the the shallow continental oceans drained into the cracks between the spreading continental plates, beginning creation of the deep-water oceans as hydrothermal vents filled and fertilized the growing oceans basins now covering seventy percent of the planetary surface.

The continental land masses now covering 30% of the planet have the same surface area as before the meteor impact but the surface curvature has flattened causing fractures and earthquakes.