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The ionized cores of stars and planets transform angular momentum of core rotation into magnetic moments, and cores are embedded in monopole fields which capture magnetic moments induced by core ions, vector forces powering high velocity ring currents of like polarity ions to the monopole field, which increases the velocity and angular momentum of ring current ions.

At Jupiter’s north pole, one cyclone about 2,485 miles (4,000 kilometers) wide has eight cyclones each of similar diameter around it. And at the south pole, one cyclone about 3,975 miles (6,400 km) wide is encircled by five cyclones ranging in size from 3,480 miles to 4,350 miles (5,600 km to 7,000 km).

Magnetic moments induced by Jupiter’s rapidly spinning core, captured by Jupiter’s monopole field, powers high velocity ring currents around Jupiter’s equatorial plane, of like polarity ions to Jupiter’s field, which increases velocity and angular momentum of ring current ions and embedded orbiting bodies.

Magnetic moments embedded in the atmosphere powers high velocity upper atmosphere ring currents ionized by UV sunlight which increase the velocity and rotational angular momentum of atmospheric ring currents, and the velocity and angular momentum of the great red spot, an embedded orbiting body which has lapped Jupiter’s rotation several times in the last few decades.

The magnetosphere of Jupiter sweeps up gases and dust from Io’s thin atmosphere at a rate of 1 tonne per second. This material is mostly composed of ionized and atomic sulfur, oxygen and chlorine; atomic sodium and potassium; molecular sulfur dioxide and sulfur; and sodium chloride dust.

Magnetic moments induced by Jupiter’s ionized rotating core powers the high velocity ring current of heavy ions ejected from Io’s volcanoes around Io’s orbital path increasing the velocity and orbital angular momentum of ring current ions and velocity and angular momentum of Io, an embedded orbiting body.

Io captures electrons from Jupiter’s field on field lines grounded on Io’s surface and propagated around Io’s orbital path which electrifies Io’s surface inducing a voltage potential and core electric currents between Io’s surface and core where electrons transform into the field lines and into mantle elements with protons transformed from photons induced by exothermic mantle reactions which increases Io’s mass and orbital angular momentum around Jupiter.

The three Galilean satellites are involved in the Laplace resonance, in which the orbital periods of Ganymede:Europa:Io are in a near 1:2:4 ratio, but more important, the mutual conjunctions of the Io–Europa pair and of the Europa–Ganymede pair precess around Jupiter at precisely the same rate.

Although it is not known exactly when or how the moons came to form the precise clock that is the Laplace resonance, one model suggests this resonance was progressively achieved after Io moved outward into a near 2:1 resonance with Europa, and then the Io–Europa pair moved outward until Ganymede was captured into its own near 2:1 resonance with Europa.


Magnetic moments captured by the planetary field powering high velocity ring currents of like polarity ions to the monopole field rotating from west to east around the equatorial plane outside the atmosphere trapped by and inflating outer planetary field lines transiting the atmosphere inside the auroral ovals.

The inner core rotates in the same direction as the Earth and slightly faster, completing its once-a-day rotation about two-thirds of a second faster than the entire Earth. Over the past 100 years that extra speed has gained the core a quarter-turn on the planet as a whole