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The fields of stars and planets capture magnetic moments induced by their ionized rotating cores which power high velocity ionized ring currents around their equatorial planes increasing velocity and angular momentum of ring current ions and velocity and angular momentum of orbiting planets and moons.

Magnetic moments captured by Jupiter’s field powers a high velocity ring current of heavy Sulphur ions, ejected from Io’s volcanoes which co-rotates faster than Io orbits Jupiter inside the ring current and increases Io’s velocity and angular momentum around its orbital path.

Ring current ions are trapped in a high velocity counterrotating current tube of electrons, powered by magnetic moments captured by Jupiter’s field, cycling in the same instant on the field lines of twin phase electrons spiral with negative (clockwise) spin

trapped on field lines propagated around Io’s orbital path and grounded on Io’s trailing and leading edge which capture electrons attracted from deep space to ring current ions and magnetic moments captured by Jupiter’s field induces a voltage potential which powers high amperage currents trapped on ring current field lines counter-rotating with ring current ions.

Ring current field lines are grounded on Io’s surface and trapped electrons electrify Io’s surface inducing a voltage potential between Io’s surface and core where electrons transform into field lines and high energy photons induced by exothermic mantle reactions transform into electron positron pairs at Io’s core where electrons transform into field lines resulting in residual positrons which merge in trios which transform with transiting electrons into protons.

Protons transform with core current electrons into sulfur, oxygen and the other elements composing Io’s mantle and ions ejected from Io’s volcanoes increasing mass and angular momentum of Io and mass and angular momentum of ring current ions in their orbital paths around Jupiter.

Io is locked in orbital resonance with Europa and Ganymede so as Io’s mass, velocity and angular momentum increases and moves into a higher orbit around Jupiter, gravitational attraction between the moons powers and increases velocity and angular momentum of the other moons which draws the moons into higher orbits to preserve the orbital resonance of the orbiting moons


Io orbits Jupiter with a velocity of 17 km s- 1 . Jupiter’s rotation period of about 10 hours makes the Io plasma torus rotate with a velocity of about 74 km s- 1 . Since Io is embedded in the Io plasma torus, the torus plasma flows past Io with a relative velocity of 57 km s- 1 . One can also say Io is being constantly overtaken by its own tail, one rotation period later, because the plasma originates from Io.

At Jupiter’s north pole, one cyclone about 2,485 miles (4,000 kilometers) wide has eight cyclones each of similar diameter around it. And at the south pole, one cyclone about 3,975 miles (6,400 km) wide is encircled by five cyclones ranging in size from 3,480 miles to 4,350 miles (5,600 km to 7,000 km).

The magnetosphere of Jupiter sweeps up gases and dust from Io’s thin atmosphere at a rate of 1 tonne per second. This material is mostly composed of ionized and atomic sulfur, oxygen and chlorine; atomic sodium and potassium; molecular sulfur dioxide and sulfur; and sodium chloride dust.

Magnetic moments captured by the planetary field powering high velocity ring currents of like polarity ions to the monopole field rotating from west to east around the equatorial plane outside the atmosphere trapped by and inflating outer planetary field lines transiting the atmosphere inside the auroral ovals.

The inner core rotates in the same direction as the Earth and slightly faster, completing its once-a-day rotation about two-thirds of a second faster than the entire Earth. Over the past 100 years that extra speed has gained the core a quarter-turn on the planet as a whole


Magnetic moments induced by the ionized rotating planetary core and captured by the field powers the high velocity ring current of ionized magma rotating from west to east around the core which increases
the angular momentum of ring current ions and embedded orbiting bodies.