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Angular momentum is the product of mass, orbital radius and velocity of an orbiting body, the force opposing gravity between the orbiting and orbited body. Increasing the mass or velocity of an orbiting body does not affect gravity but has a multiplier effect on the orbital angular momentum, which increases the orbital radius of the orbiting body and decreases gravity, which decreases as the orbital radius increases.

Scientists thought they knew the rate at which the giant moon Titan is moving away from Saturn, but they recently made a surprising discovery: Using data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, they found Titan drifting a hundred times faster than previously understood — about 4 inches (11 centimeters) per year.

Jupiter’s field captures dipole moments induced by rotation of Jupiter’s ionized core, a vector force which increases the momentum of orbiting ions in the direction of core rotation powering high velocity ring currents of atmospheric ions ionized by sunlight and high velocity ring current of heavy ions ejected from Io’s volcanoes around Io’s orbital path.

The magnetosphere of Jupiter sweeps up gases and dust from Io’s thin atmosphere at a rate of 1 tonne per second. This material is mostly composed of ionized and atomic sulfur, oxygen and chlorine; atomic sodium and potassium; molecular sulfur dioxide and sulfur; and sodium chloride dust.

Io traps the high velocity ring current of heavy ions ejected from Io’s volcanoes in a current tube of field lines propagated around Io’s orbital path which capture electrons from Jupiter’s field attracted to ring current ions in a high velocity counterflowing current trapped along field lines grounded on Io’s surface.

Io capture electrons from Jupiter’s field on field lines propagated around Io’s orbital path which electrify Io’s surface, inducing a voltage potential between Io’s surface and core where electrons transform into field lines, powering core electric currents which transform into mantle elements in exothermic reactions with protons transformed from photons induced by mantle heating.

The three Galilean satellites are involved in the Laplace resonance, in which the orbital periods of Ganymede:Europa:Io are in a near 1:2:4 ratio, but more important, the mutual conjunctions of the Io–Europa pair and of the Europa–Ganymede pair precess around Jupiter at precisely the same rate.

The Laplace resonance between Io, Europa, and Ganymede is evidence Io’s orbital angular momentum and orbital radius is increasing as Io’s mass and angular momentum increases.


Uranus’ rotation axis is tilted 97 degrees from its orbital axis so each pole faces the sun half the year while the other pole is in darkness. The equatorial latitudes only face the sun directly twice a year, leaving the equatorial atmosphere un-ionized, without upper atmosphere ring currents.

Astronomers may now understand why the similar planets Uranus and Neptune are different colors. Researchers have now developed a single atmospheric model that matches observations of both planets. The model reveals that excess haze on Uranus builds up in the planet’s stagnant, sluggish atmosphere and makes it appear a lighter tone than Neptune.

Why Uranus and Neptune are different colors

With an axial tilt of 97.77°, Uranus essentially orbits the Sun on its side. This means that either its north or south pole is pointed almost directly at the Sun at different times in its orbital period. When one pole is going through “summer” on Uranus, it will experience 42 years of continuous sunlight. When that same pole is pointed away from the Sun it will experience 42 years of continuous darkness.

Jupiter’s ionized core transforms the angular momentum of core rotation into magnetic moments which is captured by the field, and powers high velocity equatorial ring currents of atmospheric atoms ionized by sunlight which increases the angular momentum of ring current ions and embedded orbiting bodies. The great red spot has lapped Jupiter several times in the last few decades.

The planetary field captures monopole charge and magnetic moments induced by the ionized rotating core, transforming the angular momentum of core rotation into a vector force powering high velocity ring currents of like polarity ions to the field in the direction of core rotation.

The inner core rotates in the same direction as the Earth and slightly faster, completing its once-a-day rotation about two-thirds of a second faster than the entire Earth. Over the past 100 years that extra speed has gained the core a quarter-turn on the planet as a whole


The past few years have seen a flurry of records fall, with shorter days being notched up ever more frequently. In 2020, the Earth turned out 28 of the shortest days in the past 50 years, with the shortest of those, on 19 July, shaving 1.47 milliseconds off the 86,400 seconds that make up 24 hours. The 29 June record came close to being broken again last month, when 26 July came in 1.5 milliseconds short.